The SDGs were formulated in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) as part of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which sought to create a future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals, which ended that year. They were formally articulated and adopted in a UNGA resolution called the 2030 Agenda, known colloquially as Agenda 2030. On 6 July 2017, the SDGs were made more "actionable" by a UNGA resolution that identifies specific targets for each goal and provides indicators to measure progress. Most targets are to be achieved by 2030, although some have no end date.
Oceans, seas, and marines are important for the Earth's ecosystem. They cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. For human beings, aquatic ecosystem is used as sources of water, food, materials, and other recreation purposes. However for animals, water bodies acts as habitats for fishes, sharks, dolphins, and many more. According to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) the total number of marine species known to us is about 240,000 species (2021 census), which proves how big the diversity is under water. One of the organism that lives underwater is phytoplankton. Phytoplankton is a microscopic plant and is a key part of oceans and freshwater ecosystems. Phytolanktons will absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen.
But nowadays, Oceans, seas and marine resources are increasingly threatened, degraded or destroyed by human activities, reducing their ability to provide crucial ecosystem needs. The biggest threats are climate change, marine pollution, unsustainable extraction of marine resources and physical alterations and destruction of marine and coastal habitats and landscapes.
sumber : 1) https://sdgs.un.org/news/unfccc-sbsta-56-ocean-and-climate-change-dialogue-2022-46891 2) https://sdgs.un.org/topics/oceans-and-seas